The supposed importance of influentials derives from a plausible-sounding but largely untested theory called the “two-step flow of communication”: Information flows from the media to the influentials and from them to everyone else. Marketers have embraced the two-step flow because it suggests that if they can just find and influence the influentials, those selected people will do most of the work for them. The theory also seems to explain the sudden and unexpected popularity of certain looks, brands, or neighborhoods. In many such cases, a cursory search for causes finds that some small group of people was wearing, promoting, or developing whatever it is before anyone else paid attention. Anecdotal evidence of this kind fits nicely with the idea that only certain special people can drive trends.
The author suggests that the “two-step-flow theory”__________.
[A] serves as asolution to marketing problems
[B] has helped explain certain prevalent trends
[C] has won support from influentials
[D]requires solid evidence for its validity
In1784, five years before he became president of the United States, GeorgeWashington, 52, was nearly toothless. So he hired a dentist to transplant nineteeth into his jaw—having extracted them from the mouths of his slaves.
That’sa far different image from the cherry-tree-chopping George most people rememberfrom their history books. But recently, many historians have begun to focus onthe roles slavery played in the lives of the founding generation. They havebeen spurred in part by DNA evidence made available in 1998, which almostcertainly proved Thomas Jefferson had fathered at least one child with hisslave Sally Hemings. And only over the past 30 years have scholars examinedhistory from the bottom up. Works of several historians reveal the moralcompromises made by the nation’s early leaders and the fragile nature of thecountry’s infancy. More significantly, they argue that many of the FoundingFathers knew slavery was wrong and yet most did little to fight it.
Morethan anything, the historians say, the founders were hampered by the culture oftheir time. 第三题的位置While Washington and Jefferson privately expressed distaste forslavery, they also understood that it was part of the political and economicbedrock of the country they helped to create.
Forone thing, the South could not afford to part with its slaves. Owning slaveswas “like having a large bank account,” says Wiencek, author of An Imperfect God: George Washington, HisSlaves, and the Creation of America. The southern states would not havesigned the Constitution without protections for the “peculiar institution,”including a clause that counted a slave as three fifths of a man for purposesof congressional representation.
Andthe statesmen’s political lives depended on slavery. The three-fifths formulahanded Jefferson his narrow victory in the presidential election of 1800 byinflating the votes of the southern states in the Electoral College. Once inoffice, Jefferson extended slavery with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803; the newland was carved into 13 states, including three slave states.
Still,Jefferson freed Hemings’s children—though not Hemings herself or his approximately150 other slaves. 第五题的位置Washington, who had begun to believe that all men were created equal afterobserving the bravery of the black soldiers during the Revolutionary War,overcame the strong opposition of his relatives to grant his slaves theirfreedom in his will. Only a decade earlier, such an act would have requiredlegislative approval in Virginia.
第四题：Which of the following is true according to the text?
[A] SomeFounding Fathers benefit politically from slavery.
[B] Slaves in the old days did not have theright to vote.
[C] Slave owners usually had large savingsaccounts.
[D]Slavery was regarded as a peculiar institution.